These days, accuracy, flexibility, and pace in addition to minimizing waste have turn out to be the emphases in manufacturing processes which promote the speedy improvement of three-dimensional (3D) printing. Because of this, a variety of fabric varieties equivalent to metals, ceramics and polymers have been efficiently manufactured by 3D printing with fascinating options.1–4 Selective laser melting (SLM) is among the prolific powder-bed based mostly 3D printing applied sciences for metals. By a layer-by-layer manufacturing technique, SLM is able to fabricating irregular and complicated buildings with excessive accuracy and reveals big potential in biomedical functions.5,6
Just lately, researchers have reported custom-made titanium bone substitutes created by SLM with a number of benefits in manufacture.7–10 Moreover, for biomedical functions, the custom-made titanium bone substitutes must also possess particular organic benefits for prolonged indications or therapeutic impact equivalent to biomolecule or drug supply. For instance, Lee et al. reported a nanoparticle mediated PPARγ gene supply on implants might be used as therapeutic dental implants for diabetic sufferers.11 Zhang et al. reported that rhPDGF-BB loaded in nano-tube arrays may doubtlessly be utilized in dental and orthopedic functions for osteoporotic sufferers.12
These biomedical functions depend on favorable osseointegration and the microenvironments induced by the titanium surfaces have performed a major position with numerous cells concerned, equivalent to mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts and endothelial cells.13–15 Nevertheless, the unique SLM titanium floor displayed poor cell habits in contrast with the graceful floor.16–18 One resolution is floor modification to format bioactive floor topography for additional functionalization. Numerous research have targeted on floor topography modifications for superior main stability and early osseointegration.19–21 Current stories have declared that combining micro- and nano-topography may develop a number of benefits in selling osteoconduction in addition to growing the adsorption of proteins and the migration of osteogenic cells.22–24 Subsequently, it’s important to grasp the mobile mechanisms of various bioactive topographies so as to select appropriate particular person floor modification for additional functionalization focused for particular sufferers.
Titanium dioxide nano-tubes (TNTs) topography is among the extensively seen nano-topographies as a result of its glorious biocompatibility and enhanced bioactivity. Furthermore, TNTs are well-controlled throughout manufacture for the reason that manufacturing technique, anodization, is a know-how with easy operation and low value.25 Moreover, TNTs exhibit a singular floor functionalization capability. Functionalized with biomolecules in addition to loaded with therapeutic steel nano particles, antibiotics, or development elements, TNTs present numerous particular biomedical functions.26 Cheng et al. reported the fabrication of strontium- and silver-loaded TNTs on titanium surfaces and demonstrated the improved antibacterial and osteogenesis properties.27 A dual-controlled system, loading tetracycline grafted simvastatin-loaded polymeric micelles in TNTs, was constructed by Liu et al. and reported to enhance native bone regeneration and osseointegration.28
However, titanium nano-nets (TNNs) topography can be extensively researched owing to the ECM-like construction and has demonstrated early and powerful bone binding capability.29–31 Alkali-heat remedy, involving immersion in sodium hydroxide resolution and heating, is a typical technique to create TNNs topography with a sodium titanate layer.32–34 On the similar time, alkali-heat remedy is normally a pioneer step for depositing homogeneous bone-like apatite layer on surfaces.35 This chemical-thermal remedy may activate bone-like apatite formation in addition to maintain area for cell migration, vitamins transport and matrix deposition.36,37 Wang et al. reported that SrTiO3 nanolayer coating on alkali-heat handled titanium possessed osteointegration promotion capability and long-term ion launch capability.38
Because the nano-topographies with the property for additional functionalization, the fundamental capability of TNTs and TNNs for osteogenesis has additionally been studied.39,40 Nevertheless, some limits nonetheless exist amongst earlier investigations. It’s well-known that osseointegration build-up wants ongoing bone reworking round interface, coupling osteoblasts and osteoclasts.41 Most research solely targeted on the habits of osteoblasts in osseointegration however ignored the position of osteoclasts. However, there’s nonetheless a scarcity of comparability between TNTs and TNNs on SLM titanium surfaces which may information us to an appropriate selection for particular person floor modification on custom-made titanium bone substitute so as to deal with particular sufferers.
Subsequently, on this examine, we aimed to match the cell response on TNTs and TNNs of SLM titanium floor together with osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis habits in vitro. Moreover, the osseointegration of those two micro-nano topographies was additionally assessed in vivo. The outcomes indicated the completely different mobile and tissue responses to micro-/nano-tubes and micro-/nano-nets topographies on SLM titanium, which might direct us to an inexpensive first-step choice in multifunctional floor modification of custom-made titanium bone substitute.
Supplies and Strategies
The SLM processing was reported in our earlier examine.23 For in vitro cell assay, specimens have been designed as titanium discs with 10 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness (Figure 1A). For in vivo animal examine, specimens have been designed as screw-shaped dental titanium implants (Figure 1B). The diameter is 4 mm and the size is 6 mm.
Determine 1 (A) Design sketch of specimens for in vitro cell assay; (B) Design sketch of specimens for in vivo animal examine.
The unique SLM titanium floor was set because the management group named SLM group after an ultrasonic processing in deionized water for 30 min.
The unique SLM titanium skilled the physical-chemical remedy (sandblast-pickling) to cut back the roughness and enhance the micro-topography. Then, each TNTs and TNNs have been ready on the floor of SLM titanium after sandblast-pickling.
TNTs have been produced by anodic oxidation for 45 min with an utilized voltage of 20 V. The electrolyte was ethylene glycol containing 3 vol% of deionized water and 0.3 wt% of NH4F. This was the TNT group.
TNNs have been produced by alkali warmth remedy in 5 M NaOH resolution at 80°C for 8 h and this group was named the TNN group.
Afterwards, all of the specimens have been sterilized by autoclave sterilizer. There have been three teams termed SLM, TNT and TNN.
A field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, Hitachi, S-4800, Tokyo, Japan) was used to determine the floor topography. A 3D floor topography analyzer (BMT EXPERT, Lorsch, Germany) was employed to measure the floor roughness and an optical contact angle measuring machine (Dataphysics, OCA40 Micro, Stuttgart, Germany) was used for investigating the floor wettability by the sessile-drop technique.
In vitro Cell Habits
Cell Tradition Assay
MC3T3-E1 cells, the murine osteoblast-like cell line, have been obtained from the Shanghai Mobile Institute of China Scientific Academy and used for evaluating osteogenesis exercise. Cells have been cultured in an α-MEM medium (Gibco, USA) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, Gibco, USA) and 1% penicillin-streptomycin (Gibco, USA).
Because the murine preosteoclast cell line, RAW 264.7 cells used for evaluating osteoclastogenesis exercise have been obtained from Shanghai Zhong Qiao Xin Zhou Biotechnology Co, Ltd. Cells have been maintained in DMEM medium with excessive glucose (Gibco, USA) supplemented with 10% FBS (Gibco, USA) and 1% penicillin-streptomycin (Gibco, USA). The osteoclastogenesis inducing medium containing 50 ng/mL receptor activator of nuclear issue kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and 20 ng/mL macrophage colony stimulating issue (m-CSF) have been added.
MC3T3-E1 and RAW 264.7 cells have been seeded respectively onto every group at a density of 1×104 cells/mL in 48-well plates. At 24 h of tradition, the specimens have been taken out and stuck for 12 h in 2.5% glutaraldehyde resolution. The specimens have been then dehydrated in graded ethanol (50%, 75%, 90%, 95% and 100%) and dried. The adhesion morphology of cells was noticed by SEM.
The 2 sorts of cells have been incubated similar as above for 1, 4 and seven days. A cell counting kit-8 assay (CCK-8, Dojindo, Kumamoto, Japan) was used for assessing cell proliferation. At every time level, the specimens have been transferred to new 48-well plates and 500 mL of 10% CCK-8 fluid was added. After incubating for two h, optical absorbance (OD) at 450 nm was measured.
ALP Exercise Assay of MC3T3-E1
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) exercise of MC3T3-E1 cells was measured at 7 and 14 days. Cells have been lysed at 4°C for 30 min by 0.1% Triton X-100 (MP Biomedicals, Strasbourg, France) and supernatants have been collected. The producer’s protocol (Jiancheng, Nanjing, China) was adopted and absorbance at 520 nm was measured spectrophotometrically.
TRAP Exercise Assay of RAW 264.7
RAW 264.7 cells have been seeded for 7 and 14 days. After lysing, TRAP exercise assay was made in response to the producer’s directions of a TRAP enzyme assay equipment (Beyotime, Shanghai, China). An absorbance of 405 nm was measured.
Quantitative Actual-Time PCR Evaluation (qRT-PCR)
MC3T3-E1 and RAW 264.7 cells have been respectively cultured on the specimen for 7 days. A TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) was used for isolating the full RNA based mostly on the single-step technique. The PrimeScriptRT MasterMix (TaKaRa, Kusatsu, Japan) was then used for synthesizing First-strand cDNA and qRT-PCR was carried out with SYBR Premix Ex Taq II (TaKaRa, Kusatsu, Japan) and particular oligonucleotide primers on a Gentle Cycler 480 (Roche, Basel, Switzerland). The osteogenesis marker genes (ALP, Runx2 and OPG) for MC3T3-E1 cells and the osteoclastogenesis marker genes (TRAP, c-Fos, NFATc1) for RAW 264.7 cells have been measured. Table 1 confirmed the primer sequences and the mRNA ranges for cells have been normalized for GAPDH mRNA.
Desk 1 Primers Used for Actual-Time Polymerase Chain Response
In vivo Animal Experiment
The animal examine was accredited by the Establishment Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of Solar Yat-Sen College (Approval No. SYSU-IACUC-2020-000244). Through the animal experiment, the welfare and remedy of the laboratory animals have been adopted to “Animal administration laws of China” and “Guangdong experimental animal administration laws”, which have been printed by State Scientific and Technological Fee of The Individuals’s Republic of China and Individuals’s Authorities of Guangdong Province, respectively. 5 beagle canines aged 1 yr outdated have been offered by Guangdong Frontier Biotechnology Co.
0.3 mg/kg pentobarbital sodium (pentobarbital sodium, Jilin, China) and 0.03 mg/kg xylazole (Sumianxin, Jilin, China) was used for anesthesia by intramuscular injection. Tooth extraction was taken from second premolar to first molar on the bilateral mandible and implant insertion was performed after 3 months for bone therapeutic. Three canines have been used for 4-week analysis. Eight implants have been inserted in bilateral mandible of every canine with completely different floor modification in a random order. Two canines have been used for 8-week analysis, one was positioned with 8 implants and solely 4 implants have been positioned in unilateral mandible of the opposite (Figure 2). Gentamicin (Succhi Shiqi, Guangdong, China) was injected 80,000 U every canine per day for 4 days after surgical procedure. After 4 and eight weeks, the canines have been sacrificed and specimens with implants and surrounding bone tissue have been excised for additional analysis. Thus, 24 implants have been obtained for 4-week analysis and 12 have been obtained for 8-week.
Determine 2 Surgical picture exhibiting 4 implants positioned within the unilateral alveolar ridge.
Micro-CT analysis was performed by a Micro-CT scanner (μCT50, Scanco Medical, Bassersdorf, Switzerland) for 1500 ms underneath 10 μm in decision, 90 kV in voltage and 88 μA in present. Mimics® 19.0 was used for three-dimensional reconstruction. A cylinder-shaped tube (diameter: 5 mm, size: 6.5 mm) was positioned on the identical axle wire in addition to the tip overlapped with the shoulder of implant referring to the area of curiosity (ROI). A complete 24 implants (12 for 4-week and 12 for 8-week, n = 4) have been calculated for bone volumes (BV)/complete quantity (TV) of which BV referred to the bone tissues in ROI and TV referred to the quantity of ROI.
After micro-CT analysis, the specimens (n = 4) underwent onerous tissue slicing. After dehydration and embedding, a EXAKT300CP microtome (EXAKT, Hamburg, Germany) was used for slicing the specimens into 200 μm thickness and EXAKT400S (EXAKT, Hamburg, Germany) was used for grinding sections into 25 μm. Methylene blue-acid fuchsin staining was carried out and digital photos have been obtained at 25x magnification. BIC ratios have been outlined because the ratio of the bone size contact with implant to the implant size and calculated by Picture J software program (Nationwide Institutes of Well being, MA, USA).
The remaining specimens excised after 4 weeks (n = 4) have been decalcified. The implants have been eliminated fastidiously and the specimens have been made into paraffin part. HE staining, ALP staining and TRAP staining have been carried out and digital photos at 40x magnification have been obtained by a digital pathology scanner. The depth of ALP was calculated and the TRAP optimistic cells have been enumerated.
Experiments in vitro have been carried out in triplicate. Knowledge have been expressed because the imply ± commonplace deviation (SD) and statistical evaluation was performed by one-way ANOVA with SPSS 23.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). A P worth of <0.05 was thought-about statistically vital.
SEM photos (Figure 3A) revealed that nano-nets with 100–120 nm in diameter and well-arranged nano-tubes with 70 nm in diameter have been respectively established in TNN and TNT teams. The unmelted titanium particles and spheres have been solely seen in SLM group. 3D view of floor profiles in every group is proven in Figure 3B and the roughness was decreased to three.41 µm (TNN group) and seven.09 µm (TNT group) of Ra worth on common whereas roughness of authentic SLM titanium was roughly 12.58 µm (Table 2). The water contact angle of SLM group was 73.5 ± 3.25°, whereas these of TNN and TNT teams have been 20 ± 1.66° and 23.5 ± 2.5° (Figure 3C), indicating extra hydrophilicity.
Desk 2 Floor Roughness of the Samples
In vitro Cell Habits
MC3T3-E1 cells (Figure 4A) have been converged and clearly prolonged on every floor. On the floor of TNN and TNT group, MC3T3-E1 cells appeared flatter and extra stretched, with extra anchored lamellipodia and filopodia wrapping across the micro-/nano-nets and micro-/nano-tubes.
The cell proliferation was assessed by CCK-8, as proven in Figure 4B. At every time level, TNT group confirmed higher proliferation than the opposite two teams (P <0.05). Moreover, TNN group may also promoted extra proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells than SLM group (P <0.05).
ALP exercise is the early marker of osteogenic differentiation and was measured at days 7 and 14. Leads to Figure 4C confirmed the ALP exercise of SLM, TNN and TNT regularly rose in sequence each at 7 and 14 days (P <0.05).
After culturing for 7 days, the osteogenic-related gene expression, together with ALP, Runx2 and OPG, have been upregulated within the teams of bioactive surfaces (Figure 4D–F). Evaluating amongst TNN and TNT teams, the micro-/nano-tubes appeared to indicate superior osteogenic differentiation capability than micro-/nano-nets.
The adhesion morphology of RAW 264.7 cells on bioactive surfaces had a fantastic distinction from that on authentic SLM floor (Figure 5A). On SLM floor, the cells have been converged and prolonged. Nevertheless, on the surfaces of TNN and TNT teams, the cells have been adhered alone. Regardless of there being some lamellipodia wrapped onto the nano-structure, the cells nonetheless exhibited the ball form, indicating a relative inhibition of operate.
Figure 5B confirmed the outcomes of RAW 264.7 cells proliferation. Mobile proliferative exercise was the bottom on the micro-/nano-nets floor (P <0.05). TNTs floor may additionally suppress cell proliferation in contrast with the unique SLM floor, though the inhibiting capability was decrease than TNNs floor (P <0.05).
When assessing the TRAP exercise assay (Figure 5C), TNN-modified surfaces have been considerably decrease than TNT-modified surfaces (P <0.05). In the meantime, authentic SLM floor demonstrated the best TRAP exercise among the many three teams (P <0.05).
The gene expression of TRAP, c-Fos and NFATc1 was evaluated (Figure 5D–F), and the outcomes have been per these above. TNN group displayed lowest expression of osteogenesis marker genes, and confirmed vital distinction to TNT and SLM group (P <0.05). As well as, TNT group additionally confirmed considerably decrease expression than SLM group (P <0.05).
In vivo Animal Experiment
We used the mandible bone of beagle canines because the animal mannequin; thus, the atmosphere round bone substitutes was in line with oral implantation. The three-dimensional reconstruction photos are proven in Figure 6A. The teams with floor modification have been larger BV/TV than SLM group as we anticipated (Figure 6B). Apparently, BV/TV was statistically larger in TNT group than in TNN group after 4 weeks (P <0.05); whereas there was no proof of distinction after 8 weeks (P >0.05).
Figure 7A reveals the methylene blue-acid fuchsin staining on undecalcified slices. SLM group owned the bottom BIC% at 4and 8 weeks (Figure 7B), representing the worst osseointegration (P <0.05). When evaluating between TNN and TNT teams, outcomes have been constant to the BV/TV ratio above in that TNT group confirmed bigger BIC% at week 4 (P <0.05) however no statistical distinction at week 8 (P >0.05).
The HE, ALP and TRAP staining have been utilized to detect the brand new bone formation, osteogenic and osteoclastic exercise across the implants (Figure 8A). The pink zone representing trabecular bone stained by H&E stain was thicker in TNN and TNT teams at week 4. Equally, Figure 8B and C demonstrated that lowest osteogenic exercise and highest osteoclastic exercise have been noticed in SLM group (P <0.05). Nevertheless, osteogenic and osteoclastic exercise round TNTs have been each larger than TNNs (P <0.05). This consequence could give the credit score to the stability between osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, in fact, implying accelerated osseointegration in early stage of TNT group in addition to decreased bone resorption in later stage of TNN group.
The multifunctional floor modification on titanium has been targeted on individual-based remedy with custom-made implants for focused sufferers. Quite a few research have efficiently established bioactive surfaces loaded with steel particles, hydroxyapatite, medication, in addition to molecules. Pan et al. deposited zinc ions in TNTs, discovering the advance of blood compatibility and the promotion of endothelialization for intravascular stents utility.42 Wu et al. fabricated the biomimetic titanium implant with mineralized extracellular matrix coated on the TNT floor, and confirmed the wonderful osteogenic capability by growing cell proliferation and calcium deposition.43 Yang et al. covalently immobilized hyperbranched poly-L-lysine polymers onto TNN substrates to reinforce antibacterial and osteointegration skills on the similar time.44 Shen et al. reported that Mg/Zn-metal natural framework on TNN titanium possessed antibacterial and anti inflammatory properties.45 In keeping with the above assertion, TNN and TNT substrates are the frequent however sensible selection for additional functionalization with particular nanostructure and glorious biocompatibility. Thus, it is very important acknowledge the completely different biologic response between TNN and TNT substrates, together with the mobile habits and osseointegration course of, to remind us of a superior, biologically based mostly choice taking part in a synergistic or complementary position for various scientific functions. Subsequently, SLM titanium substrates, principally used for fabrication of custom-made implants, was chosen to kind TNN and TNT topographies within the current examine. In the meantime, the mobile habits of osteoblast-like cells and preosteoclasts in vitro in addition to total osseointegration in vivo may carry complete data of organic responses to TNNs and TNTs.
It’s essential to debate the floor properties owing to the necessary position in regulating cell and tissue responses and additional figuring out osseointegration, equivalent to topography, roughness, and hydrophilicity.46 Early analysis has concluded that the very tough SLM titanium floor wants bioactive remedies for higher osteoblast differentiation.47 Zhang et al. additional indicated that roughness can mediate osteoclast-material interactions to find out the osteogenic differentiation and the method of osseointegration.48 Earlier than nano-modification, sandblasting-pickling was utilized in our examine for decreased roughness, the identical as our earlier research which might be applicable for scientific utility.10,23 Our outcomes confirmed the decrease roughness on TNN group than TNT group, a potential interpretation of which might be the sodium titanate layer shaped after alkali-heat remedy.49 However, TNT and TNN teams have been extra hydrophilic, indicating higher biocompatibility, than the SLM group in our examine. Nevertheless, some research have reported the super-hydrophilic property with zero water contact angle in TNT titanium floor, which may be attributed to the inevitable contaminations of the substrate within the current examine, for instance, carbon and wrapping supplies.50 Furthermore, the bioactivity of TNT titanium floor has been reported to be influenced by the diameter of TNTs. With regards to the diameter of TNTs we chosen on this examine, we took into consideration the next two elements. First, Wang et al. reported that the optimum diameter of TNTs gave the impression to be round 70 nm with useful osteoconductivity.51 Second, based mostly on our goal of this analysis, comparatively giant diameters could be extra favored, permitting the deposition of extra sorts of nanoparticles.
The teams with floor modification contributed to osteoblast-like cells adhesion and we inferred that nano-topography may improve cells spreading by selling the clustering of integrins.19 In the meantime, the prolonged adhesion space may promote the osteogenic exercise agreed with our outcomes. Amongst osteogenesis marker genes evaluated by qPCR, the transcription issue Runx2 performs a vital position in osteoblast differentiation which may induce osteocalcin, osteopontin and bone sialoprotein expression in non-osteoblastic cells.52,53 OPG can be a mediator of bone metabolism resulting in bone formation.54 Along with CCK-8 and ALP assay, evidences confirmed the enhancement of osteogenic exercise, per the outcomes of Wang et al. and Stan et al., evaluating TNNs and TNTs with authentic floor when it comes to osteogenesis, respectively.38,55 Moreover, our examine additionally indicated stronger osteogenesis on TNT substrates than TNN substrates.
Few research give attention to the affect of floor modification on osteoclast differentiation, a vital and indispensable a part of bone reworking. Completely different from the adhesion morphology of osteoblast-like cells, preosteoclast adhered alone in ball form on the modified floor, implying inhibited osteoclastogenesis. NFATc1, which might be induced and translocated by c-Fos, is a downstream goal of NF-κB signaling, the important pathway throughout osteoclast differentiation.56–58 The expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos, along with the outcomes of TRAP-related analysis, knowledgeable us that the NF-κB pathways may also be regulated by TNN and TNT topographies in order to suppress the osteoclast differentiation. What’s value to notice is that TNN might be simpler when it comes to the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation in response to the beforehand talked about outcomes. Moreover, our earlier examine reported that TNNs may inhibit osteoclast differentiation by the MAPK signaling pathway.59 Subsequently, TNN substrates may play a stronger position in inhibiting osteoclastogenesis than TNT substrates.
General, on the one hand, TNTs exhibited superior osteogenesis promotion, then again, TNNs confirmed stronger osteoclastogenesis inhibition in vitro. Nevertheless, osteoblasts and osteoclasts work together one another within the remolding atmosphere. Nagasawa et al. prompt that floor topography altered operate of BMSC so as to affect BMM-derived osteoclastogenesis.60 Lotz et al. demonstrated that floor remedies altered osteoblast lineage cells to control osteoclasts.61 Subsequently, we explored the in vivo course of for additional verification and obtained related outcomes. The BV/TV and BIC at week 4 have been larger in TNT group than TNN group, whereas exhibiting no distinction at week 8. Taking the outcomes of staining into consideration, TNT group can speed up bone formation round implants in an early stage in contrast with TNN group, implying the likelihood for early loading of implants in scientific observe. Against this, as the best inhibition floor for osteoclast differentiation, TNN group may probably forestall bone resorption and thus apply in ailments with inappropriate osteoclast exercise equivalent to osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.
Taken collectively, TNN and TNT teams each may promote osteogenesis and inhibit osteoclastogenesis on the similar time, that are appropriate because the substrates for additional functionalization on SLM titanium. TNN had the stronger capability of inhibiting osteoclastogenesis whereas TNT promoted osteogenesis superiorly. These outcomes would instruct us to decide on applicable SLM titanium substrate for additional multifunctional floor modification for the sake of synergistic or complementary results to attain superior individualized utility. Nevertheless, limitations exist on this examine and intercellular interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts influenced by topographies must be investigated in future research.
On this examine, TNN and TNT substrates of SLM titanium, essentially the most generally used substrates for multifunction, had confirmed twin benefits in promotion of osteogenesis and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, TNN confirmed higher functionality in inhibiting osteoclast exercise whereas TNT facilitated stronger osteogenesis. These outcomes implied that TNT substrate would take benefit in early utility after implantation, whereas ailments with extreme osteoclast exercise would favor TNN substrate. Subsequently, our analysis would offer steering when a biologically based mostly first-step number of combined-modifications must be made for various scientific functions.
This work is funded by Guangdong Science and Know-how Planning Mission (No. 2019A050516001) and Foshan Science and Know-how Innovation Mission (No. 2018IT100212).
The authors report no conflicts of curiosity on this work.
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